Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. EMBED for wordpress. One person found this helpful. Excellent book to read. Superb services by Amazon. Pretty good giving a different perspective of the characters in Mahabharata. It was a good read. See all reviews from India.
Top international reviews. Plays out the epic Mahabharata in an accusatory soap operatic tone. But it is good entertainment, and certainly an original view of how things may have unfolded. Some chapters, especially the one on Karna, is very well written and engaging.
A powerful warrior and someone who was always at a disadvantage right from his childhood at having been abandoned by his mother. Try as he did, he never did attain what he was looking for. Popular portrayals of Karna have always maintained the wounded hero image of his and yet in portrayals based on the core text of the Mahabharata, Karna is a selfish and entirely self-centered man. The author does a very detailed inspection of this amazing character to arrive at a most human portrayal of him which I have seen very few later day writers do.
Drawing a parallel with Bhishma, here too was a man who all his life struggled for an ideal and ultimately failed at it. The Women : The course of the main story of the Mahabharata is driven inexorably to the calamitous end by the designs of its pivotal female characters.
Unlike most other tales where women are marginalized presences, here the women give new dimensions and meanings to the entire story line of the epic. The author assesses the impact and effect of three of the most powerful characters in the epic : Gandhari, Kunti and Draupadi.
The warring factions of Pandavas and Kauravas had two powerful matriarchal figures in the forms of Kunti and Gandhari. The whole storyline of the epic boils down to a game of thrones with the Pandavas challenging the right of the Kauravas who held the throne and the inevitable backlash of this action.
Through all these intrigues and complexities these two mothers held their clans strong and yet they were vastly different in the way their lives were lived out. Gandhari was the princess of Gandhara which might have been Kandahar from the modern day Afghanistan who was brought in to marry the crown prince of Hastinapura — Dhritharashtra. Belatedly she realizes that she was to be married to a blind man and choses a life of darkness with the aid of blindfold.
While her son, Duryodhana was born a crown prince, she lives long enough to see him become a villain. What is even more tragic about her life is that she gets to see each and every male member of her family except her blind husband get killed during the war.
Kunti is renowned as the mother of the fabled five brothers. Yet her life from a very young age had been one hardship followed by another where she had to either stand and fight or perish. Whether it was to live with an impotent husband or with sons forever cursed to be deposed and living like ascetics, she chose to stand by the men in her life resolutely.
The Pandavas struggled through life and on their way to the throne, they had to withstand social isolation, self-imposed exile and also fighting it out every step of the way. There were times when their morale was rock bottom and the will to survive simply vanished.
Kunti was like a tigress in such moments, whipping them up to stand and fight and not to waste time languishing around. Our fabled heroes would never have survived where it not for this woman and her steely grit. The most famous female character of them all is Draupadi. This was the questioning that she meted out to Yudhishtir at the time when she was to dragged into the court of the Kurus and was insulted in front of the assembled crowd.
The situation fully justified her questioning her powerless husband and yet it left an ever widening rift between them. In the whole scheme of things, it was but a little incident and yet it ended up with them throwing poisoned barbs at each other even at their death beds.
Draupadi was the singular force that kept the five together and along with Kunti strived to drive them towards their goal. As many an author points out, it is only at her death bed that she realizes that the true love in her life has been Bhima.
The Puppet-Master : Krishna has been the architect of the war and the rise of the five brothers in a thousand different ways. If you look at the interpretations of the epic right now, Krishna is a god who walked among men and helped restore order in a world that was slowly going to hell in a handbasket. The core text of the Mahabharata however differs from this version for there are no gods in them. Retellings from different sources has taken the story away from the plausible to the entirely impossible.
Krishna was a crafty and highly articulate King of the Yadava clan who is rather mysterious in the way he lived out his life.
His way of totally being dispassionate in his actions is a source of bafflement in a society that reveled in being passionately involved in all that it did.
A valiant warrior and charioteer, he was also the one man who orchestrated the death of most the famous warriors in the Kaurava clan. The author begins the episode on Krishna by dispelling the myths about him and points out that beyond all the deeds and words, Krishna also had his own selfish ends to meet while helping his cousins ascend to the throne.
Ultimately even he and his clan is not spared from the whirlwind of violence that spreads over the land. Yet if one applies reason to the entire aspect, the Gita does not appear to be a part of the original epic. Krishna speaks to his friend topics that would take a book to cover and in reality such a conversation would last days if not weeks and yet it is said that Arjuna did pick up his weapons and went to war immediately on the first day, so how did this happen?
Krishna and Arjuna were bosom buddies and had a brotherly affection between them and yet later interpretations call Arjuna a devotee of Krishna which all point to the inexorable fact that later representations of the epic gave rise to Krishna as a god and moved away from the true nature of the story.
By this what I mean is that it is only rarely that we look at or ponder over what was the effect of this game of thrones on the lives of others who lived at this time. One of the most interesting observations from an anthropological standpoint that the author advances is the rivalry that the Pandavas built with the Nagas. For all the time that I have read this epic, I have taken this word - Naga for its literal meaning which means a snake or a serpent! At the time of the Kshatriyas of this tale, a good part of India was covered in virgin forests with its own indigenous tribes and other inhabitants.
In an episode, Arjuna and Krishna burn down the Khandava forest and slaughter every organism in it for satiating the fire god. According to the author, this puts both of them in list of enemies of the Nagas. What then ensues is a rivalry that is even more bloodied than the Pandava-Kaurava clash.
A feud that lasts three generations and one that has a lasting impact on the lives of people who came after the Pandavas with one side trying to out kill the other. The Nagas still exist, for they are the inhabitants of the state of Nagaland in eastern India. If one were to look at this from a social angle, it is the struggle between the settlers and the local populace which sometimes explodes into a frenzy of violence. The setting of this story is also at a time when the caste system holds sway heavily over the Indian society.
In the descending order, the entire society was carved up into : Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. Brahmanas were men of knowledge and Kshatriyas were the warriors. The essay in question talks of two brahmanas who stepped away from the path of knowledge to the path of the weapon.
The father-son duo of Drona and Ashvatthama were in the Kaurava clan and fought on their side in the war. At length the author goes about the purely selfish reasons that motivated the father and son to step into this role and also how Asvvathma, blinded by a quest for glory commits a remorseless massacre post the war. While Drona elicits sympathy for his fickle interest in riches, the warrior Asvvathma shows the early streaks of being someone who shows an insane attraction to violence.
In addition to these, there is also an essay that explores the nature of the half-brother of Dhritarashtra : Vidura who was also the chief minister of the kingdom. It also puts forward a theory that Yudhishtir could have been fathered by Vidura. Pretty much a farfetched theory and I really did not find this to be much beyond speculation.
Yuganta : An epoch ends with the Mahabharata in the true sense of the word. Across India, the belief systems and the social conditions were also undergoing a massive churn. This could also explain how such a stark and hard boiled story like the Mahabharata could at a later point be transformed into a melodramatic soap opera fit for TV.
In most serialized renditions of the tale, the stories are full of miracles and divine interventions and yet in the core text there were no gods who intervened in the affairs of mortals.
Men and women lived to eat the fruits of their actions and the epic was ultimately a tragic one. It was only perhaps with the advent of the Bhakti movement that the likes of wish fulfilling gods and dreamy literature entered the fray. This essay is also one that traces the anthropological roots of the epic. Was there a written language at the time of the epic? If so what was it? This does not appear to have a definitive answers for the tales were sung by bards across the nation.
A well-grounded look at the world of the Mahabharata was this essay! There is nothing purely black or white in this story. All characters serve their own means and live and die like all of us humans. It is an unflinching and stark portrayal of humanities never ending fascination with destroying all that is dear to them and lamenting it later.
This book is also a wonderful reminder of the saying : Big things come in small packages. In approximately pages, it gave me an in depth perspective into my favorite story of all time. View all 6 comments. Irawati Karve strips the great epic of its embellishments and additions to lay out before us this stark, thought-provoking. This picture forces us to expand our views on the epic and the people tossed about in it. Full review to follow. Edit: Irawati Karve deserves much less credit than I initially attributed to her.
Most of the radical ideas were in play in Randamoozham and MT does not even try to sensationalize them as Karve later did. View all 9 comments.
May 27, Akash Nair rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy , nf-history , classics , culture-india , favorites. Once in a while you read a book you will cherish all your life. This is such a book. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Award [ edit ] The book won Sahitya Academy Award in Retrieved 10 October — via Amazon. You should have but two objectives: the protection of Bhishma and the killing of Shikhandi. It was not as if Shikhandi and Arjuna were shooting arrows at an unprotected Bhishma.
Duhshasana had been especially appointed to guard Bhishma. What was he doing at that time? Was everyone so exasperated that they wanted Bhishma out of the way? He only fell down wounded. But the sun was in the south; dying souls could find no rest.
Bhishma had to use his blessing to prolong his death for six more months. He could hear and with his ears he had to hear the laments of the widowed Kuru women. He could talk. And with his lips later authors made him speak the banalities of the Shantiparva. Had Bhishma accomplished anything in keeping his vows?
The question remains. The critical edition does not have most things said in this sketch. It has only the following about Gandhari, 1 she bound her eyes with cloth When she heard that her husband to be was born blind. All the sons died at the hands of the Pandavaa in the battle. Vidnra had died before them.
Gandhari The hilly country had ended. They had reached the vast, monotonous plain of northern India. Now obstructing their progress were only rivers or occasional forests. Most of the time the princess rode in a chariot, or was carried in a palanquin; sometimes she walked.
Her companion was a maid slightly older than herself. When they were leaving, it was she who had consoled the princess. He, too, looked after the comfort of his sister. When the people from Hastinapura had come to ask for her hand their gifts had dazzled everyone.
Their chariots, their clothing, their ornaments were rich and splendid. The behaviour and speech were urbane. Already her retinue was made up almost entirely of these people; there was almost no one from Gandhara. Their journey was so long and so fast that the princess was fatigued both in mind and body. Finally she longed only for the journey to end. At last it was over. Bhishma came out of the city to greet the Gandhara princess.
As her retinue rode through the city, people stood on both sides to welcome her. But Gandhari was too tired to pay any attention to them. She went immediately to the chambers reserved for her. For two days she remained there, exhausted and listless. But every day her companion would go about the palace and return with new descriptions of the splendour of the Kurus. Gandhari was astounded to hear that her brother Shakuni, the prince of Gandhara, had decided to stay permanently in Hastinapura.
Still, she kn ew of many cases where a man whose elder brother was on the throne had gone to another kingdom to obtain wealth and fortune. It was good to think that although she had come so far, she was not completely cut off from her home. In the evening she ceased to think of her own home and became absorbed crowded capital below and the broad forests beyond, along the banks of the Yamuna. In Gandhara she had never seen such a vast expanse of level land. This palace too was much bigger than that of her parents.
Gradually she ceased to think of her own home and became absorbed in the thoughts of being queen in this splendid house. Just then her friend came in. But today the girl looked different. She did not come in as usual, animated and gay. Her face was white, her steps faltered.
Thinking her friend must be sick, she stepped toward her. The prince you are going to marry is blind from birth. The next moment she fell to the floor unconscious. Gandhari was seated in her palace. What hope has this poor woman left? Though the rest of her sons were gone, as long as Duryodhana was alive, she still had a son.
She could master her grief and hold her head up. What can she do now? After I had many children you thought that your Gandhari would at last be happy. But it was never so. If they were hurt, my heart would start to pound; if I heard them crying, I used to get grieved, flurried.
The day they came back humiliated from the ill-fated trip for inspecting the royal herds I felt sadder than they themselves. When the Pandavas were being sent to a small town on the border, those helpless children came to say farewell.
Inwardly I was telling myself that if they fought the kingship of Hastinapura would remain with my sons. Today how many are left? I had no life of my own. All my life, their moments of happiness were my moments of happiness; their moments of sorrow were mine. Today I have become completely calm. Now there is nobody for whom I can be anxious. My mind is now permanently at peace.
There is nothing to hope for, nothing to fear. Immediately she realized how false her words were. As long as her blind husband was alive, she could not escape being subjected to happiness and grief.
Agitated, she got to her feet. For the second time in her life she fell over in a faint. Seeing that the queen had fallen, all the servants hurried towards her. Dhritarashtra stood alone just inside the door- way. He could hear the confusion around him, but he could not understand what had happened. In this lower hut there had been servants to wait on them.
There were huts of ascetics nearby. Dharma and the other princes had come to visit them twice. On the whole, the tempo of their life was even and quiet.
One after another, the days passed for Dhritarashtra and Gandhari, Vidura and Kunti. Vidura, Dhritarashtra and the ascetics would spend their time discussing one subject or another. Gandhari and Kunti would sit listening. Every time visitors came the outwardly calm stream of their life was disturbed. After they left, outwardly, all became peaceful, but it took a longer time to quiet the inner turmoil.
Today, too, the princes and their wives had come from Hastinapura. Now let the four of us build a hut and live by ourselves. It has taken many months for us to get used to living out here, away from the palace. But now it would be better if we went higher and lived in the forest. Dhanna looked at Vidura. But today Vidura too was supporting Dhritarashtra.
You must now bid us farewell. You, who know dharma so well, why are you trying to tempt us back into this world? You should also not cling to us. Nobody asked Gandhari her opinion. The party walked all day. Not only the young men and their wives but the ascetics accompanied the old people. As they went up, the valley had become narrow; the river now was far below them.
Finally Vidura selected an open, quiet, shaded place. There the servants erected a hut and left enough provisions for ten or fifteen days. That night the whole party slept there and in the morning all but the four departed with heavy hearts.
Dhritarashtra would not allow a single servant to remain. Gandhari gave her heartfelt consent. Finally the farewells were said. Every few days they will come and look to your needs. I am telling them that at other times they should not come near you.
Now only the four remained in that lonely place. They seated the blind couple, and then sat down themselves a little behind. Gandhari was sitting quietly. She let out a deep sigh. Our life has been just what two blind people could expect. She would not normally have replied back but the scorn in his words pricked her. Since we came here, the mountain breeze, the thick carpet of needles underfoot, the light smell of the pines, the sighing of the forest in the breeze, and the constant murmuring of the river all have reminded me of Gandhara; and without realizing it, I sighed.
That is all. Today I was recalling the country of Gandhara, not the people. Your Majesty knows that though I lived in the same courtyard as my brother, I never spoke to him. Vidura and Kunti sat with astonished expressions. The scorn was gone from his voice. Without being told of my blindness you were married to me. We did you a thousand wrongs, Gandhari. But you have paid them back. Sit here. So far in our relationship as husband and wife nothing has taken place in private. There is no reason for any privacy henceforward.
As your elder I order you to stay. I thought that I would plead with you and be able to extinguish your anger with my love. But that was not to be. I was born blind. I had become used to moving about without seeing. But you had deliberately covered your eyes. Your body was not used to blindness. What a horrible night! At least we would have avoided this horrible future.
I could have torn off that blindfold. But I thought that instead of forcing you with my authority, I would persuade you in time. Perhaps you would have done it for the children, but I was not ready to give you the chance. I had a kind of revengeful pleasure in knowing you would never see the face of your son. Going around with your eyes bound you were playing the part of a devoted wife. You were chained by the results of your own actions. Never again could you open your eyes of your own accord.
You could only have done it by my order. And that I would not give. Until that time you never felt that I belonged to you. We Kuru men have done great injustices to women. And we have paid in full for them too.
I am still burning in yours. My children too have been destroyed in it. Kunti also was married to a deficient man. After his death she constantly guarded the welfare of her children. Every person gets entangled in a mesh of injustices. I wronged you. Pandu wronged Kunti. And whose wrongdoing was it that Pandu and I should lead such fruitless lives? Can we say that the wrongs done to our mothers, the misery they suffered, brought this curse on us?
Poor Vidura was the only one completely sound in mind and body. He was the son of the same father as we were. But because his mother was a servant, he could not become king. Kunti and Vidura were the only two people in our whole clan who were consciously watchful. You feel, Gandhari, that you have been cheated and deceived, but think for a moment: in the three generations of our family every person has been cheated and deceived. I am pleading with you not merely to ask for forgiveness, but to persuade you to give up your fight against life.
Give up your anger, not only against me, but against life itself. My injustice to you does not give you the right to do an injustice to your children, to your whole life. How can one wrong compensate another, Gandhari? At least now take off that blindfold. Learn to look at the world, at human beings, and at your own past life objectively. Our life is nearly over. Pattanaik has not been so caustic about Bhishma. Chivalry was dead this was confirmed with the behaviour of seniors like Bhishma at the disrobing of Draupadi and quoting scriptures at that critical time!
Stylistic Comparison :. Comparing these texts on the basis of style, both these works are embellished with unique literary devices. Jaya is enthralling as it is accompanied by very interesting snippets of information enclosed at the end of every chapter. There are several explanatory boxes that help understand the context. On the other hand the anthroprologist,Irawati Karve has the reader. Page 27 of These texts are indeed a treasure house of information about our past.
They help us in getting closer to our origins. By objectively handling the stories of the marginalised and juxtaposing it against those of the main stream, these works have surely led to a great deal of awareness and empowerment! Of course, there is a lot more to dwell upon-as regards the Mahabharata. To sum it up in the words of Devdutt Pattanaik, who claims that this retelling firmly remains rooted in his belief that:.
Varuna has but a thousand eyes Indra,a hundred, And I,only two. Notes and References:. Nov 25, There were different regional versions of the Sanskrit Mahabharata too, more than A group of scholars examined all the plus versions and produced what they believed to be the authentic text, shorn of subsequent interpolations.
This is known as the Critical Version. Many popular stories do not figure in this critical version, such as Vedavyasa dictating to Ganesha or Krishna saving Droupadi when she was being disrobed by Duhshasana. However, beliefs and myths do not necessarily adhere to a Sanskrit cum authenticated scholarly version, a point made in a slightly different context by Wendy Doniger in her study of Hinduism.
Page 28 of Subaltern studies aim to fill in important methodological and historiographical gaps and more recently, has come to question the rigidity of Marxism and other dominant schools of academic historiography. Pattanaik Devdutt-Jaya-An illustrated retelling of the Mahabharata. Penguin Books India. Karve Irawati-Yuganta-The end of an epoch. Disha Books,Orient Longman India. Raman Senden London: Longman, Page 29 of Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.
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Uploaded by Uttam Satapathy. Date uploaded Apr 24, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download Now. For Later. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Amit Rajput. Vinay Shenoy.Scholar Critic. Vol, Issue, March Yuganta irawati karve pdf free download Y. Nakhare S. S College, Mumbai. Several writers have reviewed the Mahabharata and probed the minds of iconic male and female characters and have combined facts with latest hindi song ringtone free download. These texts have uniquely yuganta irawati karve pdf free download the Yuganta irawati karve pdf free download and offered the reader a fresh perspective. This paper is an attempt to compare the texts and bring about similarities and contrasts in terms of structure, content and style. In Jaya, Devdutt Pattanaik a qualified medical doctor, has seamlessly woven into a single narrative, plots yugaanta the Sanskrit classic as well as its many folk and regional variants. Hence history manipulates the cultural material and in doing so, it strikes a parallel with myth and legend. By drawing from the above reference, both the authors in their works dealt with in this paper have yuganta irawati karve pdf free download to present truth objectively as found in the source texts mentioned below. They have presented contemporary society as existent in the times in their works and also how history has manipulated cultural material by bringing yugantx light later interpolations i. Page 15 of They have both in their own unique way tried to downloac the cultural history of the nation by rewriting the dominant myths. Pattanaik specifically has also simultaneously presented the local tribal myths. Thus in a way they have both resisted the dominant historiography tuganta have countered it kwrve an alternative folk historiography drawing from oral histories, folk songs, folk-lores and legends. Structural Comparison :. To compare the texts structurally, Yuganta —The end of an epoch is a compilation of essays on the grand epic. The chapters are exact same as in the first edition. Jaya yuganta irawati karve pdf free download Devdutt Pattanaik varies vastly in structure as compared to Yuganta. Later, the author has divided the work into books based on broad themes like ancestors, birth, education to name a few. Yuganta irawati karve pdf free download the author downlozd mentions his source texts i. INDIAN MYTHOLOGY, SOCIAL CRITIQUE. Addeddate: Identifier: Yuganta-TheEndOfAnEpoch-IrawatiKarve. Irawati Karve studies the humanity of the Mahabharata's great figures and no one endowed with the power to die at will, Bhishma was free to leave the world. yuganta the end of an epoch irawati karve - boluesob reading free download for service manual sea doo sportster le online service manual pdf free holt. ByIrawati sud-ouest-tai-chi-chuan.org, Books Irawati sud-ouest-tai-chi-chuan.org, Books Irawati Karve, Download Irawati an Epoch on FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders Yuganta The End of an. Irawati Karve's Yuganta and Devdutt Pattanaik's Jaya - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Irawati Karve's. Test (YUGANTA THE END OF AN EPOCH IRAVATI KARVE Preface The idea o ) Like this book? You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! Create your own flipbook Download PDF. Downloading. Yuganta book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Yuganta studies the principal, mythical-heroic figures of the Mahabharata. Yuganta: The End of an Epoch is a book written by anthropologist Irawati Karve. It is shortly called as Yuganta. It is a critical analysis of Mahabharata. The book. The author of this book, Irawati Karve, was also a well-known anthropologist and educationist Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Your email address will not be published. Karve might have been harsh on Bhishma or his actions and the injustice he meted out to women but she did raise questions on the lives of women that have been begging to be asked. The two great matriarchs are then dealt with in a great manner, which elucidate mainly the injustices suffered by Gandhari and Kunti. Let us not forget that the book was published in , a time at which there plenty of strong feminist influences to go around, perhaps none as powerful as the beginnings of the daughter of a certain Pandit in this very nation. Bhishma was the eighth son of Kuru King Shantanu, who was blessed with wish-long life and had sworn to serve the ruling Kuru king. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! It is but our duty to absorb it in all its essence, if we are to appreciate and understand what the Mahabharata is all about. Karve, for the disclaimer that she puts at the beginning that she does not enforce her views on anybody, and that her true victory would be if the book inspires somebody to read the original Mahabharata. Herein lies his misconception as the throne must be considered a responsibility before it is considered as a privilege. D in the subject, from Berlin, and this shows in the precise way she describes the hierarchies and rituals of the Kshatriya society in which the Mahabharata is set. Bhishma is a clear example of clutching on to his own ideals. It was widely known that she was a well read, sensible, intelligent and quite an independent woman.