Anatomy and Embryology of Cerebral Circulation. Anatomy and embryology of the parathyroid gland. The authors are leaders in their fields and bring together many years of teaching experience, both in the UK and North America. Not surprisingly, therefore, the book is well written, comprehensively illustrated and authoritative.
There have been some changes and the new edition has moved away from the style of a colour atlas to become more of a traditional text. The early chapters provide a readily accessible source material on the macroscopic anatomy of the peri-oral structures together with a comprehensive account of the morphology of individual teeth. There are useful structure—function correlations, for example, in the description of speech or swallowing. From the methodological point of view, oral biology is indistinguishable from basic sciences.
In this book, Professor Markopoulos excellently discusses the fundamental aspects of the structure and function of the oral mucosal cells and its specializations, which allow oral mucosa to fulfill several roles. He successfully also covers other important topics, such as aspects of bone biology, oral microbiology, mastication, deglutition and speech. If you found this book helpful then please like, subscribe and share. The first-formed dentine, in the crown region, is called mantle dentine.
The collagen fibres in this part of the dentine are not orientated perpendicular to the dentinal tubules, as in the rest of the primary dentine. Instead, bunches of thick collagen fibres fan out from a point just into the dentine, towards the amelodentinal junction. Because of the relatively high fibre content of mantle dentine, the mineral content will be lower than the rest of the primary dentine. The function of these fibres may well be associated with increasing the quality of the attachment of the enamel to the dentine.
In the root, where the first-formed dentine lies next to the cementum, there are two additional layers that require highlighting: the granular layer of Tomes and the hyaline layer.
Figure 6. They are darker probably because of the relatively low mineral content of the region. The hyaline layer lies next to the acellular cementum and gains its name from its histological appearance - a clear layer and incidentally nothing to do with cartilage.
Oral biologists now believe that this layer may be formed by the epithelial cells of the root sheath of Hertwig, before they disintegrate to allow the cementoblasts to come in contact with the first-formed mineralised dentine. A tiny amount of dentine continues to form, however, after the tooth is completed — this is secondary dentine, which continues to form throughout the vitality of the tooth. As with primary dentine, dentinal tubules continue to traverse the secondary dentine.
One of the clinical implications of this situation is that endodontic treatment of a tooth from an elderly individual may be made more challenging, because both the pulp chamber and root canal are reduced in size and may, therefore, be difficult to find. The function of secondary dentine is not clear. Tertiary dentine is divided into reactionary dentine, formed by the surviving primary odontoblasts, and reparative dentine, formed by the newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells.
Reactionary dentine contains tubules, which are continuous with the tubules of the secondary dentine, whereas reparative dentine is considered amorphous and does not demonstrate a tubular appearance. The rapid production of the latter may account for its structureless form. This might have been due to a carious lesion involving dentine, a leaking restoration or dental erosion which has affected the dentine with open, exposed dentinal tubules. The dentine of the whole tooth is often referred to as intertubular dentine, which merely refers to virtually all of the dentine — that is the mineralised tissue between all the tubules.
So, both primary and secondary dentine can be considered under this umbrella term; tertiary dentine, which lacks a tubular appearance, is not considered as intertubular dentine. Just below the cuspal or incisal regions of a tooth, there are regions where the globules of dentine mineral calcospherites have failed to coalesce — this type of dentine is called interglobular dentine.
Throughout the vital life of a tooth, micro-amounts of mineral are leaked out of the lateral aspects of the odontoblast process. The deposited mineral will gradually reduce the diameter of the tubule. This type of dentine is highly mineralised and will, over time, obliterate the tubule completely! This will take a long time to occur and will make the dentine eventually much more brittle than it was previously.
Because the dentine is more brittle, it will be less able to carry out all of its functions, most importantly, to provide support for the enamel.
One of the many clinical implications of this altered tissue state is that extracting a tooth from an elderly individual, without due consideration, may result in fracturing of either the crown or the root.
This filling in of the dentinal tubules is a normal occurrence and usually commences at the apex of the tooth, moving gradually towards the coronal aspect of the tooth, and is one of the very few age changes in the tooth.
This feature of dentine may be used in forensic cases where the age of human remains may be needed for identification purposes. The clinical significance of tertiary and sclerotic dentine is that they cause reduction in dentine permeability.
This means that dentine left after caries excavation is less permeable than other areas of dentine which is not directly under the caries process. Therefore, leaving caries-affected dentine clinically may be advantageous for the protection of the pulp. This highlights the need for the clinician to discriminate between caries- infected and caries-affected dentine and to try to leave as much of the latter as possible.
Dental Pulp The dental pulp is the connective tissue situated within the tooth Figures 5. There is a gap between the predentine and the layer of odontoblasts — this is an artefact as they should, in life, be adjacent to each other. The major feature of the specimen is the high degree of vascularity of the dental pulp, which will be surrounded by collagen, fibroblasts and undifferentiated ectomesenchymal cells. The pulp has an extremely small volume — approximately 0.
The pulp appears intact and healthy and would have needed to be removed when the tooth that it came from was fractured as a result of trauma from a fall from a bicycle. Note the many sharp jagged parts of the barbed broach which are needed to grip onto the tissue during its removal. The key functional cell of the pulp is the odontoblast, which lies immediately next to the predentine, the unmineralised dentine, through which the odontoblast process will pass and enter a dentinal tubule.
The odontoblast will form the dentine matrix, oversee the calcification process and may have some sensory abilities. The pulp, like all connective tissues, consists of fibres, cells and an amorphous aqueous matrix. Nerves and blood vessels are crucial components of the pulp and are organised into bundles. The matrix is made up mainly of proteoglycans long-chain carbohydrates , which have the ability to retain water and give the pulp a gel-like quality see Figure 5. A chemical called dernatan sulphate is also present and may be involved with collagen synthesis.
Fibroblasts form collagen. When the crown of the developing tooth is complete, there are two sets of blood vessels: Coronal i. This is the highest blood flow of all the oral tissues. This is confounding since the pulp would appear to have no obvious metabolic need, but perhaps highlights the importance of maintaining all the functions of dentine.
There are autonomic fibres as well: these probably control blood vessels. All three types of nerves will be derived from the appropriate alveolar vessels and enter the tooth through its apex, travel up along the root canal and divide near the pulpo-dentinal border forming a plexus within the sub-odontoblast region — the plexus of Raschkow Figures 5.
Before tooth eruption there are relatively few nerves all unmyelinated , which contrasts with the massive increase in axons after eruption. For example, a permanent first molar has approximately axons before eruption and about post-eruption, although this number will reduce dramatically with age. Primary teeth have between and axons — the reason why these teeth lack any degree of sensitivity is not entirely clear.
This section demonstrates the abundance of nerves that innervate the dental pulp. Courtesy of Dr Robin Orchardson Figure 5. Some nerve fibres can be seen passing between the cells of the odontoblast layer and into the dentine. They also respond to fluid movement within the dentinal tubule, for example drying, drilling, changes in osmotic pressure and so on C Fibres: unmyelinated with diameter of 0. These nerve fibres transmit impulses relatively slowly and respond to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli, for example histamine and bradykinin.
These fibres are associated more with a dull, prolonged pain, which may not be easily localised by a patient Autonomic Fibres: these have both sympathetic and parasympathetic supplies. If caries is limited only to enamel and there is no cavitation, active operative intervention and removal may not be required; instead a preventive regime can be introduced combining oral hygiene, dietary advice and increasing the fluoride availability.
Increasing the fluoride availability can be achieved through fluoridated toothpaste and professional application of high fluoride-containing agents within the dental surgery. Once dental caries has penetrated the enamel and entered the dentine, the tooth is likely to require restoration, which will involve the removal of the affected tissue — usually all of it, although there are occasions when some dentine caries is left on the floor of a prepared cavity and a restorative seal is created to prevent further progression.
The combination of a preventative regime and a restorative seal forms the basis of minimally invasive dentistry MID. Any tooth tissue that is removed will require replacement: an anterior tooth will usually be restored with a tooth-coloured material — usually a composite resin material or a glass ionomer in non-load-bearing areas.
Composite resin can also be used in a posterior tooth; if, however, oral hygiene is questionable and caries risk is high and there is a deep restorative margin into dentine on a molar or a premolar, amalgam may still be considered the restorative material of choice. The most crucial and vulnerable region of coronal dentine, with regard to dental caries, is the ADJ, where the disease can spread rapidly and will quickly undermine any remaining enamel Figure 5.
It may also be that when carious microorganisms reach the dentine, they will be able to invade the dentine, enter the dentinal tubules and pass straight down to the pulp where they can initiate an inflammatory response, resulting in a pulpitis. Note the clean and caries-free amelodentinal junction ADJ.
Some arrested dentine caries has been left on the floor by the clinician which was found to be hard and did not require removal. The Smear Layer A feature that is created following any sort of instrumentation of dentine, and has caused a great deal of discussion amongst both clinical and material scientists, is the smear layer. The smear layer is a layer of debris that is formed whenever dentine undergoes mechanical instrumentation, for example after the dentine surface has been prepared either with a dental drill and bur or following hand instrument usage.
The layer consists of both organic and inorganic debris, as well as bacteria and possibly salivary constituents. If the layer is to be removed, this is usually carried out with phosphoric acid. Some argue that the smear layer produced from caries-affected dentine is acid-resistant and has considerable sealing ability due to its high inorganic content.
Furthermore, some clinicians claim that the smear layer provides an extremely good seal over the dentine, particularly following removal of carious tissue, ensuring that the tubules are blocked and thus will prevent the passage of potential irritants through the tubules to the pulp, where they may cause pulpal irritation.
Others, however, believe that the smear layer is not stable in moisture and, therefore, its disintegration over time could create a gap between the restoration and the tooth structure, leading to microleakage encouraging the development of secondary caries.
If the dentine surface is to be bonded to, for example, a restoration, most clinicians would agree now that this layer should be removed, since the strength and integrity of the bond will be compromised were the smear layer allowed to remain. The same applies in endodontics, where removal of the smear layer allows better canal disinfection and sealer penetration into patent dentinal tubules. Historically, there have been two broad categories of dentine bonding agents.
The first category includes those that maintain the smear layer and bond to it; these are now largely historical. The second category includes those that remove the smear layer and then form an interlinking network with the dentine tubules hybridisation. The Pulpal Response to Insult In health, the pulp exists to ensure that both the dentine and the odontoblasts are well perfused with an aqueous source of nutrition, so that the dentine can perform the functions for which it is intended — and that is mainly to support the enamel and permit the dissipation of a force towards the supporting tissues of the tooth.
The pulp performs this role superbly well, and can in most cases allow the tooth to remain vital throughout life. This property is very closely related to dentine's main structural feature, which is the presence of dentinal tubules.
Thus, the structure of dentine can be modified in response to either physiological or pathological processes. Mild Insult If the tooth is exposed to a mild insult, then there will be an increase in blood flow to the pulp. Examples of such trauma may include caries that is progressing slowly and is involving the outer half of dentine i.
The patient may report a sharp pain of short duration A delta fibres when there is any contact with fluids of varying temperatures or osmotic pressures. In this case, the odontoblasts would be stimulated into the production of tertiary dentine which acts like a mineralised sticking plaster!
The tooth may be a little sensitive for a few days, but this should soon disappear. The tooth should remain vital. If treatment is not carried out the caries lesion may advance further to the next stage, or if a fracture, may exacerbate the pulpal inflammation. Another example of this would be where there is gingival recession around the neck of the tooth; if there is also loss of cementum, the dentinal tubules will be exposed and similarly exposure to a stimulus will result in a sharp pain of a short duration — so-called dentine hypersensitivity.
Clinically, this can be treated by the application of a desensitising agent, for example fluoride-containing toothpaste, high- concentration fluoride application or by application of a material that will seal the tubule, such as a dentine bonding agent. Moderate Insult Moderate trauma will include dental caries that reaches the inner half of dentine, or a fracture where a substantial amount of dentine is affected.
The pulp, however, is not exposed. The patient will likely report a sharp pain of short duration A delta fibres but of increased frequency compared with a mild insult. Such sharp twinges may well be interspersed with the occasional dull pain of a more prolonged nature C fibres. The symptom of a dull ache may indicate some alveolar bone irritation. There will again be increased blood flow and the odontoblasts will be stimulated into the production of tertiary dentine, which will with time protect the sensitive pulp against further trauma.
The patient will usually attend the dentist for advice as a matter of some urgency — which would be the provision of a suitable restoration with or without an appropriate lining so that the pulp is protected.
Even if treated, however, the sensitivity may remain for several weeks, but the pulp would normally remain vital. If the caries is not addressed, the dentinal lesion will advance further and this will lead to chronic irritation of the pulp, leading to pulp death. Severe Insult A severe insult will include dental caries which involves the entire thickness of dentine, and will normally involve the pulp directly.
Alternatively, it may be due to a crown fracture which causes the pulp to be directly exposed, thereby making the pulp to be visible on clinical examination. The majority of patients would have sought advice long before this stage, but in the minority of cases that advance to this late stage, such patients experiencing these severe symptoms are now forced to seek help. The progressing caries activity has caused the pulp to be either entirely necrotic or on the verge of complete necrosis due to overwhelming infection.
The treatment at this stage would be to either remove the tooth or to perform endodontic therapy, that is remove the necrotic pulp, disrupt any biofilms that have formed, disinfect the root canal and fill the canal with an inert material — usually gutta-percha with a sealer.
The pain should then disappear, but the blood and nerve supply to the tooth will have been lost. In this case the pulp has become silently non-vital. Such assumptions can, therefore, only be regarded as indicative and need to be complemented with radiographic information and a comprehensive clinical examination.
When the tooth has become non-vital, if untreated, the infection continues to spread to the alveolar bone surrounding the apex of the tooth, resulting in an localised abscess; with further progression, more bone resorption will occur until such point that several months later the abscess becomes so large that the outer plate of alveolar bone becomes perforated and a large facial swelling will occur — the site of which will be determined by the tooth involved.
The patient may become quite unwell pyrexial if there has been systemic spread of the infection. Root canal treatment can still be performed but extraction may be the treatment of choice. CHAPTER 6 CEMENTUM Stephen Creanor Key Topics Structure and functions of cementum Cellular and acellular cementum Intrinsic and extrinsic fibres of cementum Fibrillar and afibrillar cementum Relationship between the PDL and cementum Nutritional supply of cementum Clinical considerations Learning Objectives To be able to outline the locations of cellular and acellular cementum To be able to summarise the functions of cementum To be able to explain the role of intrinsic and extrinsic fibres To be able to illustrate the relationship between the PDL and cementum Cementum is the least highly mineralised tissue of the tooth and can usually be found covering the entire root surface Figure 6.
The major function of cementum is to provide attachment of the tooth, by means of the periodontal ligament PDL , to the alveolar bone. A thin layer of cementum can be seen surrounding the root of the cross- sectional specimen. Both acellular minimal amount and cellular cementum towards the apex can be seen on the longitudinal section.
As has been stated previously in Chapter 3, cementum is formed from cementoblasts which are mineral-and fibre-secreting cells derived from the dental follicle of the tooth germ. During the formation of the tooth root, and as the root sheath of Hertwig continues to divide apically, the odontoblasts line up on the tooth side of the sheath and begin to secrete the collagenous matrix of the mantle dentine.
The epithelial cells of the sheath then disintegrate leaving an exposed, unmineralised dentine surface against which the cells of the dental follicle will now lie. The follicle cells, and in particular those cells which are in intimate contact with the dentine, begin to differentiate into cementoblasts. These newly differentiated cells extend cell micro- processes towards the dentine and begin to secrete fine collagen fibrils which interlock with the collagen of the mantle dentine.
Mineralisation of the mantle dentine begins internally by means of vesicular section see more details in Chapters 3 and 5 and then extends outwardly towards the fibrils secreted by the cementoblasts. The cementoblasts then start to migrate outwards, away from the root surface, depositing collagen fibrils as they move. These initial fibres increase in both thickness and length as they grow, and are thought to be fully mineralised, with some lying perpendicular to the root surface whilst others are orientated parallel to the root surface.
The role of the mineral here is to act as a cement — that is to bind the fibres together and link the cementum to the mineralised dentine. This layer of mineralised tissue, which is devoid of cells and high in fibre and mineral content, is usually referred to as acellular fibrillar cementum Figure 6.
These fibres which have originated from the fibroblasts within the periodontal ligament, and are therefore outside the cementum, are referred to as extrinsic fibres. The mineralisation of the cementum continues to progress, both between the fibres and within the fibres themselves. The extrinsic fibres only mineralise partially, leaving unmineralised cores. Mineralisation of the cementum advances, which at this stage is relatively slow, from its innermost layer outwards towards the continually developing dental follicle.
It is likely that the initiation of mineralisation is seeded by the mineralising vesicles that form the inorganic, apatitic part of the dentine, although the exact mechanism is not clear. The acellular fibrillar cementum that is first formed, therefore, has a high fibre content, some of which is cementoblast-originated collagen and the rest of which will be collagen that has originated from the periodontal ligament.
The fibres of the cementum that have originated from the cementoblasts themselves are referred to as intrinsic fibres.
These are usually fine in nature and are mineralised completely, thus providing a structure that is thoroughly locked to the dentine — a quality that will be necessary for the supportive function of the entire periodontal ligament. The slow production of acellular fibrillar cementum comes to a halt, with the cementoblasts now lying on the surface of the cementum. These unproductive cells can now be called cementocytes; their important role is to facilitate nutrition of this first-formed cementum via the vascular supply of the dental follicle and eventually the blood vessels of the periodontal ligament.
At the apical half of single-rooted teeth and at the bi- and trifurcation regions of multi-rooted teeth, the cementoblasts continue to form cementum, although at a faster rate than found in the first-formed cementum.
With this increasing rate of production, some cementoblasts get caught up in the production of the mineralised matrix: these are now termed cementocytes and play no further role in cementum production — instead, they feature canaliculi which exist within narrow channels of the cementum, pointing in the direction of the periodontal ligament space, towards their source of nutrition to help maintain the viability of the cementum Figure 6.
It may be, however, that some of the deeper cementocytes become non-vital with time and perform no further function. With its cellular appearance, this type of cementum is termed cellular fibrillar cementum, which retains the significant ability to form cementum in the future when necessary, but only on the outer surface of the tissue.
University of Miami Simple text logo for University of Miami. Search UM Mobile. Popular Links. Deadlines How to apply Open House Webinars. Military International. Career Accelerators. They have devoted their talent of teaching and practicing to promote the standard of the subject in their conscious and scientific minds. They have produced this book Handbook of Oral Biology of great practical use both for students and trainees learning basic and clinical sciences. When going through the pages of this book, I found that the authors have made a sincere attempt to present an intelligent overview of various aspects of oral biology.
It fulfills a long term need of a concise book in this field. I am sure owing to its illustrations, simple language and in-depth explanation of every aspect of the subject, this book is doubtlessly appropriate and satisfactory for those students who are searching for thorough knowledge in this field. I consider oral biology as a backbone of dentistry since it is not only about the structure and development of dental tissues but in fact it is very essentially required to clear the understanding of fundamental concepts of development, their corelation with the functions as well as pathophysiology of anomalies and later their clinical consequences.
So the modified form of its contents should be a part of the current curriculum for undergraduates, to make them aware of the updated knowledge and recent trends in the field of oral biology all over the world. The concepts they have focused on are easily understandable and the selection of words is also quite appropriate not only to read the book like a story but also easy to memorise it.
They have used elaborate figures and illustrations to emphasize the concepts and make the practicality of this book two fold. While going through the pages of this book I found that the authors have really devoted their knowledge and talent and while setting the contents of this book they have undoubtedly considered the requirements and needs of students who face difficulties while reading a textbook. In my opinion, this book meets the requirements of a good reference book.Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. Berkovitz, B. Download PDF. Recommend Documents. Oral histology and embryology. Venous Embryology and Anatomy. Biliary Anatomy and Embryology. Ocular Anatomy, Embryology, and Teratology. Anatomy and Embryology of the Biliary Tract. Embryology and anatomy of the ear. Anatomy and Embryology of Cerebral Circulation. Anatomy and embryology of the parathyroid gland. The authors are oral biology textbook pdf free download in their fields and bring together many years of teaching experience, both in the UK and North America. Not surprisingly, therefore, the book is well written, orql illustrated and authoritative. There have been oral biology textbook pdf free download changes and the new edition has moved away from oral biology textbook pdf free download style of a colour atlas to become more of a traditional text. The early chapters texxtbook a readily accessible source material on the macroscopic anatomy of bioloty peri-oral structures together with a comprehensive account of the morphology of individual teeth. Download with Facebook All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essentials of clinical oral biology / edited by Stephen Creanor. p. ; cm. Note the clean and caries-free amelodentinal junction (ADJ). Handbook of ORAL BIOLOGY Zohaib Khurshid BDS, C- Implant, C- Nano-Tech This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or. This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of the part of dentistry that links basic physiologic Foreword promotion: free to download PDF Price: $ Posts about Oral Biology written by Dental Education. Free Download Links: Choose a server to download from: Hulkload Part1 – Part2 Premium Download. sud-ouest-tai-chi-chuan.org ISBN: | pages | 5 Mb Download Essential by Stephen Creanor (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Free PDF Download of Dental Book. i'm happy that Dr Maji Jose is bringing out a textbook necessities of Oral Biology (Oral Anatomy, Histology, body structure. Apr 21 oral-biology-textbook-of-maji-jose-free. 1/5. PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. Apr 21 oral-biology-textbook-of-maji-jose-. BOOK REVIEW Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. Berkovitz, B.K.B., Holland, G.R., Moxham, B.J., third ed., Mosby, ISBN , £ This. A Handbook of Oral Physiology and Oral Biology - MB PDF - If you found this book helpful then please like, Free Download Here. Report Issue Click Me. Biochemistry and Oral Biology A. Follow us. Clinical Comment and Consider the Patient boxes help you apply information to clinical practice and patient care by describing clinical tips, points of interest, and patient situations. Please enter your name here. Covers the recommended undergraduate syllabus for oral histology as per the Dental Council of India norms Over 50 photomicrographs taken personally by the authors from their personal collection Accompanying digitized schematic diagrams will help understand the photomicrographs better and also be useful to learn to draw these diagrams Includes condensed text matter discussing essential review information about the features being depicted Useful hints and points to remember provided at the end of each chapter A video guide for the slides is also included along with the textbook Useful as a teaching material for practical and theory classes in oral histology Complimentary access to complete e-book 11 online videos. Heng — Medical. Vertebrobasilar Ischemia and Hemorrhage 2nd Edition. Articles of Faith July 9, Tables and boxes throughout the text make it easy to quickly summarize important information. Author : Gregory J. High-resolution and 3D imaging techniques of communities growing in biofilms and the intimate interactions between microbes and host cells.