ap physics 1 free response questions and answers

ap physics 1 free response questions and answers

Physics Lessons Physics Tutorial High School Physics Physics Videos Physics Review Physics Lectures Physics Demonstrations Estimate the magnitude of the acceleration of the blocks after release.

Briefly explain your reasoning without deriving or using equations. The dots below represent block A and block B, as indicated by the labels. On each dot, draw and label the forces not components exerted on that block after release. Represent each force by a distinct arrow starting on, and pointing away from, the dot.

If you need to draw anything other than what you have shown in part b to assist in your solution, use the space below. Do NOT add anything to the figure in part b. Does your equation for the acceleration of the blocks from part c agree with your reasoning in part a ii? Briefly explain your reasoning by addressing why, according to your equation, the acceleration becomes or approaches a certain value when m A is much less than mB.

Next, the pulley of negligible mass is replaced with a second pulley whose mass is not negligible. When the blocks are accelerating in this scenario, the tension in the vertical portion of the string is T2.

How do the two tensions compare to each other? Estimate the acceleration of the system when it is released, given that block A is much more massive than block B. Explain your answer in words. Now estimate the acceleration of the system if block A is much less massive than block B.

Sketch a free-body diagrams of each block, given that the blocks are similar but not necessarily equal in mass. Derive an equation for the system's acceleration. Does your derived equation agree with your answer for part a ii , when block A was much less massive than block B? If the pulley is replaced by a pulley with a non-negligible mass, how does the tension in the vertical part of the string compare to the tension in the horizontal part of the string?

Briefly explain your answer. When the spring is compressed, the plate can be held in place by a pin at any of three positions A, B, or C. For example, Figure 2 shows a steel sphere placed against the plate, which is held in place by a pin at position C.

The sphere is launched upon release of the pin. A student hypothesizes that the spring constant of the spring inside the launcher has the same value for different compression distances. Assume equipment usually found in a school physics laboratory is available.

In the table below, list the quantities and associated symbols that would be measured in your experiment. Also list the equipment that would be used to measure each quantity. You do not need to fill in every row. If you need additional rows, you may add them to the space just below the table.

Describe the overall procedure to be used to test the hypothesis that the spring constant of the spring inside the launcher has the same value for different compression distances, referring to the table.

Provide enough detail so that another student could replicate the experiment, including any steps necessary to reduce experimental uncertainty. Each sphere is launched from position A. On the axes below, sketch a graph of launch speed as a function of sphere mass. Give the background physics principles on which the student has based their hypothesis. What law is the hypothesis based on? Derive an expression for the spring constant based on this law, and written in terms of quantities that could be measured in an experiment.

Design an experiment that uses the launcher and will test the student's hypothesis. Make sure your experiment and the expression you derived in part a ii are consistent. What will you measure? How in detail will you measure it?

How will you use those measurements to determine whether or not the hypothesis was correct? If several spheres with different masses areclaunched from the launcher, graph the launch speed vs the mass of the spheres. Note: Part d is not related to the experiment you described in parts a - c. The motor shown above is used to lift a block of mass M at constant speed from the ground to a height H above the ground in a time interval Dt.

The motor has constant resistance and is connected in series with a resistor of resistance R1 and a battery. Mechanical power, the rate at which mechanical work is done on the block, increases if the potential difference voltage drop between the two terminals of the motor increases.

How should the resistor of resistance R 2 be added to the circuit to decrease Dt? Write an expression for the power the rate at which work is done on the block connected to the motors as described in terms of the block's mass, how high it is lifted off the ground, and the time it takes to lift it.

You can also include physical constants, but not other quantities described in the problem such as the resistance R1 or the potential difference voltage drop across the motor. If a second resistor is to be added so that the time increases, where in the circuit should it be added? Explain your answer in a clear, paragraph-length response. The column of air in the tube resonates at its fundamental frequency.

The speed of sound in air is m s. Ignore random thermal motion of the air molecules. Calculate the new fundamental frequency of the tube. Calculate the length L of the tube, given the frequency of the tuning fork and the description of the standing wave. Graph the maximum speed of the air molecules at different locations inside the tube.

Where are the air molecules moving the most? Where are they more or less at rest? The mass of Earth is ME. Each force must be represented by a distinct arrow starting on, and pointing away from, the spacecraft.

If you need to draw anything other than what you have drawn in part a to assist in your solution, use the space below. Is the orbital period of the second spacecraft greater than, less than, or equal to the orbital period of the first spacecraft? Is the speed of the spacecraft in the new orbit greater than, less than, or equal to the original speed?

Draw a free-body diagram showing only the relevant forces. Combine the relevant equations gravitation, centripetal motion, velocity to solve for the time needed to make one complete orbit.

If m changes, what happens to T? If R changes, what happens to T? Use the equation you derived to help you answer. The results of their experiments are shown in the table below. Clearly scale and label all axes, including units as appropriate. Will this change affect the value of the resistivity determined by the second group of students?

Give enough detail so that another student could replicate the experiment. As needed, include a diagram of the experimental setup. What quantities should you put on the x and y axes so that the slope of a line of best fit will be the resistivity? Make the graph you described and calculate the slope from your graph. Does the shape of an object affect its resistivity?

Design an experiment to determine the affect of the temperature of a substance in this case, the dough on its resistivity. Make your description of the experiment as detailed and specific as possible. A students' experiments reveal that, while the disk is spinning, friction between the axle and the disk exerts a constant torque on the disk. Derive an equation for the rotational inertia I of the disk in terms of tau0, omega0, t1, and physical constants, as apporopriate.

As time passes, more and more oil reaches the contact surface, reducing the friction even further. The student writes down the following two equations, each of which includes a positive constant C1 or C2 with appropriate units. Which equation better mathematically models this experiment? Briefly explain why the equation you selected is plausible and why the other equation is not plausible. Draw graphs of velocity and acceleration of an object experiencing a constant torque.

Combine the relevant equations torque, angular kinematics to solve for the rotational inertia of the disk. Draw graphs of velocity and acceleration for an object experiencing a changing torque. Determine which equation correctly describes the behavior of the disk over time and explain why.

In the diagrams below, those dots are labeled P and Q. At the instant shown, dot P has maximum displacement and dot Q has zero displacement from equilibrium. At each of the dots P and Q, draw an arrow indicating the direction of the instantaneous velocity of that dot.

At each of the dots P and Q, draw an arrow indicating the direction of the instantaneous acceleration of that dot. For simplicity, dot Q is not shown. Draw arrows to represent the instantaneous velocity of a point on a wave that's at maximum displacement, and a point on a wave that's at zero displacement.

Draw arrows to represent the instantaneous acceleration of a point on a wave that's at maximum displacement, and a point on a wave that's at zero displacement.

How far does a single point on the wave travel during one period? The block is oscillating with period TP and amplitude AP about the spring's equilibrium position x0. A second block Q of mass 2m is then dropped from rest and lands on block P at the instant it passes through the equilibrium position, as shown above.

How does the period of the spring-mass system's oscillation change after the second block is dropped onto the first expressed as a numerical ratio? How does the amplitude of the spring-mass system's oscillation change after the second block is dropped onto the first expressed as a numerical ratio? Use concepts of simple harmonic motion, collisions, and conservation of energy to write a paragraph-length explanation of your answers to parts a and b. In circuit 1 a dingle lightbulb is connected to the battery.

In circuits 2 and 3, two lightbulbs are connected to the battery in different ways, as shown. The lightbulbs are labeled A-E. If any of the lightbulbs have the same potential difference across them, state that explicitly. Briefly explain how you determined your ranking.

In which circuit will the battery run out of usable energy first? In which circuit will the battery run out of usable energy last? In a clear, coherent, paragraph-length response that may also contain equations and drawings, explain your reasoning. Order the lightbulbs from largest potential difference voltage drop , and briefly explain why you ordered them that way. Which circuit uses energy at a faster rate? Which circuit uses energy at a slower rate? Scoring Guidelines.

Sample Responses Q1. Sample Responses Q2. Sample Responses Q3.

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