Trajectories and predictors of sexually aggressive behaviors during emerging adulthood. Psychology of Violence, 3, — Valkenburg, P. The differential susceptibility to media effects model. Journal of Communication, 63, — Communication Research, 42, — Vandenbosch, L.
Sex Roles, 66, 38— Poetics, 45, 19— Vannier, S. Journal of Sex Research, 51, — Wallis, C. Performing gender: A content analysis of gender display in music videos. Sex Roles, 64, — Wang, J. Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus.
Chichester, England: Wiley. Ward, L. Understanding the role of entertainment media in the sexual socialization of American youth: A review of empirical research. Developmental Review, 23, — Media and sexualization: State of empirical research, — Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, — Journal of Adolescence, 39, 49— Wiederman, M. The gendered nature of sexual scripts. The Family Journal, 13, — A minute confidential structured interview Brown et al. A modified version of this interview was conducted at each follow up time point with the participant and separately with a collateral reporter e.
Socioeconomic status at intake was determined using the Hollingshead Index Hollingshead, based on parental education, occupation and income. The Lifetime Version, given at intake, assessed lifetime use of alcohol and eight types of drugs and the Current Version of the CDDR, given at all follow-up assessments, assessed average day use in the last 3 months.
We used substance dependence symptoms, rather than abuse symptoms, as these are considered a more sensitive measure, and are strongly associated with adverse consequences and common risk factors e. The CDDR has demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity in adolescents and young adults with AUDs and SUDs Brown et al.
At each time point of assessment, we had no more than two inconsistencies between self-reported use and biological samples.
Approximately half were under reporting i. In the other half of the cases, participants reported use that was not identified on the toxicology screen. The data were maintained as reported because the participants assumed that they had consumed an active substance. To form the trajectories, frequency of use was measured at each time point by quantifying the average alcohol use days per month summed across beer, wine and hard liquor in the past 3 month period 0— The average 30 day drug use episodes summed across the 8 types of substances used per month in the 3 months prior to assessment 0—; e.
Maximum number of drinks per episode i. Marijuana use, other drug use, and polydrug use were examined using marijuana, other drugs any of the 7 substances , and using multiple drugs in the same use episode at least once in the preceding 3 month period, respectively. In LCGA, and within growth mixture models generally, a latent categorical variable is specified for the model that represents a set of trajectory classes.
Each class' expected developmental trajectory takes on a unique and, in many cases, distinct form; each has its own set of parameter estimates for the model that describes the functional form of the expected developmental trajectory.
LCGA can model the influence of covariates such as baseline characteristics e. However, this modifies the expression of the trajectories as a function of these personal characteristics.
As our primary goal was to better understand the patterns of post treatment substance use in this sample, a constrained dual trajectory model Brame et al. Baseline characteristics and functioning were subsequently examined after specification of classes. The LCGA included data from assessments at 6 months and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 year time points.
In this type of analysis, missing data was allowed for any time point maximum of 2 missing. To reflect the frequency count nature of the alcohol and other drug use variables, these measures were modeled as Poisson distributed variables. The model was estimated using MPlus 4.
In LCGA models, the number of groups in the latent class variable must be specified. In this study, 3 to 9 class models were compared and through a sequential process of model selection, the LCGA model with the optimum number of latent classes was identified. Given prior work in this sample Brown et al. As is common with mixture models, local maxima issues were a concern with the likelihood solutions obtained Hipp and Bauer, Since it is common for complex mixture models to have multiple maxima, we adopted a conservative approach to guard against the possibility of selecting parameter estimates that are not at the global maximum For detailed review see Eliason, ; Hipp and Bauer, ; McLachlan and Peel, After being selected, the 6 class model was rerun with random starts and 60 final stage solutions to minimize the risk that the reported model was a product of local maxima.
Even with the large number of random starts, many local maxima were found among the best fitting solutions. Of the top 10 rank ordered solutions, 6 different maxima were identified and as recommended Hipp and Bauer, , the local maxima were compared and evaluated for substantive differences between the solutions. The resultant solution with the best likelihood was presented and the parameter estimates were consistent with the parameter estimates for the 5 other top maxima.
Under these circumstances, results can be used to draw substantive conclusions from the model Hipp and Bauer, Two strategies were used to determine whether demographic and substance use patterns of youth at treatment entry were related to post treatment trajectory class membership.
Multinomial logistic regression Hosmer and Lemeshow, was used to test for differences in ethnicity, sex, and alcohol and drug dependence diagnosis among the different classes. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience— for you and your students. MyDevelopmentLab engages students through personalized learning and helps instructors from course preparation to delivery and assessment.
Series This product is part of the following series. MyVirtualTeen Series. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood employs a cultural approach that informs students about what life is like for young people in cultures from around the world, thus broadening their understanding of the diversity of human development. This text strives to have students not only think critically but to learn to think culturally about the studies they examine.
With an emphasis on adolescence and emerging adulthood from varying cultures and a global view, students are encouraged to think outside of their own experiences.
Fourth, the sample suffered some attrition at each assessment. When data collection in the OADP began in , almost all of the available information on adolescent depression came from small patient samples or questionnaire-based surveys. The present paper took the entire data set and expanded our focus to compare and contrast MDD across four markedly diverse developmental periods.
Results suggest that MDD in childhood is unique in terms of a lower occurrence but also possibly greater episode duration. Adolescent MDD is unique in its high rates of suicide attempts, although it is possible that many of these episodes may be of short duration. Emerging adulthood warrants further study as a separate developmental period for depression researchers given its elevated rates of MDD relative to adults, but the presentation of MDD in this age period e. Longitudinal studies of community samples that continue into adulthood, such as the OADP, have provided essential information.
However, this review also points to the kinds of future research topics and designs that are needed to make further progress. Peter Lewinsohn. D, for his assistance in preparing the revision to this manuscript.
Paul Rohde, Oregon Research Institute. Peter M. Lewinsohn, Oregon Research Institute. Daniel N. Klein, Stony Brook University. John R. Seeley, Oregon Research Institute. Jeff M. Gau, Oregon Research Institute. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Psychol Sci. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. Paul Rohde , Peter M. Lewinsohn , Daniel N. Klein , John R. Seeley , and Jeff M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Paul Rohde, Oregon Research Institute;. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Paul Rohde, Ph. Paul Rohde, Peter M. Lewinsohn, John R. Seeley, Jeff M. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Method Brief Description of the OADP Participants were randomly selected in three cohorts from nine senior high schools representative of urban and rural districts in western Oregon. Developmental Period Child 5. Open in a separate window. Child 5.
Don't wait! Try Yumpu. Start using Yumpu now! When a distribution shows a large majority of very low scores and a few very high scores, the distribution is said to be Maria wants to know if identical twins raised in different environments have different iq scores.