abnormal psychology 5th canadian edition test bank free

abnormal psychology 5th canadian edition test bank free

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McKay Test Bank. Barnett Test Bank. Van Belle Test Bank. Twice as many young males abuse steroids for body size and performance as those who abuse drugs that produce a high.

The high produced from steroid use is more intense than that experienced with other drugs. Which of the following approaches is MOST likely to help people with gambling disorder? When Ed drinks alcohol, he initially experiences a feeling of well-being and more outgoing behaviour. Why is this? Alcohol stimulates the autonomic nervous system. Alcohol activates the inhibitory centres in the brain. Alcohol depresses the inhibitory centres in the brain. Alcohol depresses the autonomic nervous system.

Dylan has been using and abusing marijuana for more than ten years. He is considering quitting because he has begun to experience which of the following? How do both amphetamines and cocaine produce their desired effects? Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons? Extremely high doses can result in death by suffocation. It causes marked aggressive tendencies. It stays in the system longer than cocaine.

It has an extremely high risk of physiological dependence. Candace rarely drinks alcohol, but she became very intoxicated at the office party. She began to drive herself home, but on the way she was arrested for driving under the influence. Which of the following levels of involvement with alcohol would best apply to Candace and Jason? Candace, abuse; Jason, use b. Candace, use; Jason, use c. Candace, use; Jason, abuse d. Jean-Pierre has gambling disorder.

Why did early editions of the DSM classify alcoholism and drug abuse as sociopathic personality disorders? They were considered to be signs of mental illness. They were considered to be a sign of moral weakness. They were considered to be criminal behaviours. They were considered to be symptoms of psychosis. Every once in a while, Jared acts on aggressive impulses by assaulting others or destroying property.

Jared likely meets the criteria for which disorder? What do inhalants cause? In their controlled study of the effects of cocaine exposure on the developing fetus, what kind of deficits did Potter and colleagues find in the cocaine-exposed infants? Which of the following substances distort sensory experiences, feelings, and perceptions? Nick has been an alcoholic for many years. He has also experienced major depression and manic episodes. Approximately what percentage of alcoholics also have an additional psychiatric disorder?

What did DeWit and colleagues find regarding their study of lifetime drinkers who drank at an early age ages 11—14? Drinking at an early age resulted in more severe withdrawal symptoms than drinking at later ages. Drinking at an early age seemed to lead to more responsible drinking habits at later ages. Drinking at an early age caused more frequent blackouts than drinking at later ages. Drinking at an early age was predictive of later alcohol-related disorders.

Your shy and introverted friend tells you that she has discovered a wonder drug that produces feelings of euphoria and it is not addictive. When you realize that she is talking about cocaine, what should you tell her? In the long term, she will want to be reclusive and antisocial. If she continues to use it, she will exhibit extreme symptoms of depression, which are common to two-thirds or more of cocaine abusers. If she continues to use it, she will gradually develop an inability to resist taking more over time.

Unlike other recreational drugs, the mellowing and calming effect she achieves will not last over repeated use. Why are both morphine and codeine considered analgesics? They both have a sedative effect. They both relieve pain and produce euphoria. They both cause hallucinations and dissociative experiences. They both activate the central nervous system. Why was the use of Rohypnol popular among adolescents in the s?

It has the same effect as alcohol without the telltale odour. It is a sexual stimulant. It can be taken in fairly high doses without any withdrawal symptoms. In trying to understand why some individuals become addicted to drugs and others do not, it is important to consider the negative reinforcement that is associated with the anxiolytic effect. What is the anxiolytic effect? In some individuals, chronic alcohol use causes physical damage to the body.

Whether this occurs depends on a number of factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors? Which of the following is an example of agonist types of treatment for substance abuse? Palmer is developing a treatment program for people with kleptomania. In order to best serve his patient population, he is planning a treatment program that will help with the impulse control component of kleptomania.

What else could it potentially help treat? What does research data show is the relationship between gene s and substance abuse? No one gene causes substance abuse or dependence. No genes have been found to be linked to substance abuse. Sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic drugs affect the brain by acting on one of the neurotransmitter systems. Which neurotransmitter system is it? GABA system c.

Which of the following analgesic substances is NOT classified as an opiate? You are sitting on an airplane with adult men and adult women. About how many of the men are likely to be classified as heavy drinkers? In trying to understand why some people continue to use alcohol until they become dependent on it and others are able to stop before this happens, what is important to consider? Liam has just taken an amphetamine.

His entire central nervous system is stimulated because of increased activity of which of the following? Which of the following does NOT correctly identify the specific effect of alcohol on a particular neurotransmitter system?

At low doses, barbiturates relax the muscles and can produce feelings of well-being. However, large doses can have results similar to which of the following?

Which of the following pairs an organic brain syndrome associated with long-term alcohol abuse and its symptoms and causes? Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome—loss of intellectual abilities caused by the toxic effects of alcohol on the brain c.

Yesterday, you took a couple of aspirin tablets. In behaviourist terms, what is aspirin? Where are the natural opioids, enkephalins, and endorphins found?

George decided to abruptly quit using alcohol. He is now experiencing sweating, mental confusion, incoherent speech, disorientation, terrifying hallucinations, and extreme restlessness. An individual continues to drink and denies that there are any negative consequences associated with alcohol. An individual properly evaluates the risks associated with continued abuse of alcohol and decides to enter a treatment program. An individual finally sees that drinking alcohol has only negative consequences and stops drinking.

An individual continues to drink even when he or she knows that excessive drinking has severe negative consequences.

Carol has been addicted to narcotics for many years. Recently, she has been trying to quit and has not used any drugs for the last week. As part of her withdrawal from narcotics, Carol will likely experience several effects. Which of the following is she NOT likely to experience? The drug opiate-antagonist naltrexone is a treatment for substance abuse.

How does it work? Which of the following is classified as a benzodiazepine? Halcion b. Seconal c. Amytal d. Depressants decrease central nervous system activity and help us relax. Which of the following substances is classified as a depressant? A year-old man has terminal cancer and has been receiving fairly high doses of morphine for pain relief around the clock for several months.

What level of substance involvement would best apply to this individual? It occurs regardless of biological influences. It occurs with fewer social and cultural influences than humans. It occurs independently of social and cultural influences. It occurs with as much social influence as with humans. Barrett and colleagues found that administering nicotine through tobacco smoke leads most smokers to increase their alcohol consumption.

According to the researchers, which of the following reasons may explain the cause? Using both substances simultaneously may maximize the effects of both smoking and alcohol on the dopamine reward system. Smoking becomes a conditioned stimulus for the alcohol and increases cravings for alcohol. Alcohol maximizes the pleasurable effects of smoking on the dopamine reward system.

Nicotine may make drinking alcohol more rewarding in terms of its effect on the dopamine reward system. Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS is a combination of problems that can occur in a child whose mother drank alcohol while pregnant. Which of the following is a symptom of FAS?

Substance dependence often involves drug-seeking behaviours. Which of the following is NOT one of these behaviours? According to the results of a year follow-up study of more than opioid addicts, approximately 28 percent of them had died. What was the mean age at death? Suganthy has intermittent explosive disorder.

Alcohol use and aggression are positively correlated. Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines aggressive behaviour? Mark has been using crack for two years. His whole life is now oriented around trying to get more crack to feed his habit. He even sells drugs to get crack money. What is the danger of using a definition of dependence that uses drug-seeking behaviours as a measure of dependence? It may exclude alcohol, which is freely available in our society.

It may include activities such as sex, work, or even eating chocolate. It makes it seem as though addicted individuals actively choose to be addicted. It may exclude instances where the drug in question is prescribed by a doctor. How is the opponent-process explanation of drug addiction best explained?

An increase in negative feelings will be followed by further negative feelings, and this mechanism is both strengthened with use and weakened by disuse. An increase in positive feelings will be followed by an increase in negative feelings, and this mechanism is strengthened with disuse.

An increase in positive feelings will be followed by an increase in negative feelings, and this mechanism is strengthened with use. An increase in negative feelings will be followed by an increase in positive feelings, and this mechanism is weakened by use. Reid is studying the efficacy of Gamblers Anonymous. What has she found to be necessary in order for the program to work? The group leader must be a former gambler.

The gambler must have a desire to quit gambling before they start treatment. The gambler must be financially stable d. The treatment must occur in an psychiatric facility. Lisa has been using crack for about two months now. Although she knows it is destroying her job performance and she has been reprimanded for missing work, she refuses to give it up.

She says she can quit whenever she wants to and just uses crack because she enjoys it. She tells others who question her drug use to mind their own business and leave her alone. Jan has used crack to the point where she has impaired control over her use of it.

While she experiences no withdrawal symptoms when she stops using it, she wants it so badly she cannot stop herself from taking it. The integrative approach to substance abuse reflects the concept of equifinality. Which of the following best explains this concept?

Neurobiological factors determine whether substance abuse will develop. A genetic factor alone is the cause of substance abuse. For any particular individual, substance abuse may arise from multiple and different causes. Psychological factors are the primary determinants of whether or not a person becomes a drug addict.

How effective are controlled drinking approaches to alcohol abuse? It works long term for about 30 percent of alcoholics. People using this method stick to treatment at higher rates than those who attempt to abstain from alcohol entirely. The program does not work long term. The program is as effective as Alcoholic Anonymous.

Yan has kleptomania. She feels a sense of tension before she shoplifts. After she shoplifts, what does she feel? Which the following is NOT a symptom of withdrawal from alcohol? Linea has gambling disorder. If an individual is affected by blind sight, what is that person doing? Jenkins argues that it is possible to inherit certain genes that could develop into a disorder, even though the disorder may never be activated unless conditions of trauma, challenge, or anxiety are experienced.

Which model supports Dr. The basic idea in this work is that a careful analysis of which of the following is important for producing accurate predictions of behaviour?

Christina sits down to relax in her soft chair after a long, tiring day. As she sits reading her paper, she grows more relaxed. Her breathing and heart rate slow down and her muscles loosen. Those with anorexia were more accurate. Those with anorexia were less accurate. Those with anorexia were slower. Those with anorexia were faster. Suppose you are a researcher who has bred rats to be emotional and reactive and then you cross-foster those rats so they are raised by calm mothers.

What result would you expect? The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive as youths but calm when raising their own young. The young animals will tend to be calm throughout their lives.

The young animals will tend to be mostly calm but emotional and reactive when faced with stressful situations. The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive.

In which of the following cases is low serotonin activity NOT likely to lead to destructive or impulsive behaviours? Tracy conducts an experiment where participants are given a mild shock followed by either a placebo or an opioid.

When Dr. Tracy asks participants about pain relief and studies pain-related areas of their brains, what will Dr. Tracy find? Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but only the opioid affected the region responsible for the control of the pain response in the brain. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, and they affected similar regions in the brain stem.

Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but they affected completely different regions in the brain. Which of the following occupations is an analogy for the main function of neurotransmitters? You read in the newspaper that a mother lifted a car to free her trapped child. Which of the following is a biological influence on blood-injury-injection phobia?

Sandra had part of her brain removed to control epilepsy and as a result she can no longer solve problems that require visual imagery. What area of the brain did Sandra have removed? Michael and Marie lost their parents in a tragic accident. Marie has developed depression while Michael has not. Which of the following is Dr.

Guthrie likely to cite to support her claim? Men have fewer social relationships than women, which may protect them from additional stress. When experiencing a negative event, women tend to ruminate about it and to blame themselves. Men are more likely to self-medicate their depressive feelings with alcohol. Men are more likely to simply endure feelings of depression, which makes the feelings pass more quickly.

What did Aaron Beck, the originator of cognitive-behavioural therapy, assume that depression is largely influenced by? Which of the following can be created by placing a rat in a cage where occasionally electrical shocks are administered through the floor, over which the rat has no control? Martha suffered a serious head injury and has since experienced difficulty recognizing specific sights and sounds.

Which lobe of her brain has most likely been damaged? If you put all the neurons from a brain in a hat and randomly selected one, which area would the neuron most likely have come from? You and a friend are lost while walking a street in a foreign city. A stranger approaches and you are concerned that the stranger may try to mug you. Your friend assumes that the stranger is approaching to give you directions. As the stranger approaches, you experience fear but your friend experiences relief.

How can your different emotional reactions be explained? Maya has experienced brain damage that has left her with difficulty sleeping and the problem of being hyperaroused. Which area of the brain was most likely damaged? Kolb and colleagues exposed juvenile, adult, or very old animals to challenging and complex environments. What did they find about this kind of environment? It had positive effects on the cognitive functioning of all the animals, regardless of age.

Which of the following has dopamine been implicated in? Where in the brain are verbal and cognitive processes usually controlled? According to your textbook, the elevated rates of some psychological disorders in First Nations people are probably due to the contributions of poverty and another factor.

What is this second factor? Which of the following can be concluded from the studies regarding rat learning and brain structure done by Greenough, Withers, and Wallace ? Early psychological experience has little to do with brain structure or later development of psychopathology. Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and will determine whether the individual will develop a psychological disorder later in life.

Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and influences the number of connections between nerve cells. Early psychological experience does not result in physical changes to the nervous system but can still influence whether or not one develops a psychological disorder. Dana has experienced an injury and can no longer perceive some sensory information.

What sorts of behaviour would lead the doctor to suspect serotonin is low? Sean is showing aggression, suicidal ideation, and impulsive behaviour.

Sean is showing symptoms of schizophrenia. Sean is exhibiting anxiety and nervousness. Sean is exhibiting mania.

What can we conclude about John? He may or may not develop depression, but we could determine this if we knew more about factors such as his social support.

He will develop depression due to the genetic predisposition and the home environment. He is no more likely to develop depression than any other child as long as he has friends and does not have difficulties as a child. He is at higher risk for depression but may never develop the disorder. In their study comparing a placebo to opioid drugs, what did Petrovic and colleagues conclude? Psychological factors can affect brain function.

Drugs should not be prescribed for most painful conditions. Pain is more of a psychological phenomenon than it is physical. Opioid drugs may relieve pain only through the expectation of pain relief. The restrained eaters showed substantially slowed colour-naming for food-related words. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly more food-related words.

The restrained eaters showed substantially faster colour-naming for food-related words. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly fewer food-related words. Which of the following describes the research results of Greenough, Withers, and Wallace ? Genetically caused brain structure problems can be corrected by positive life experiences.

While psychopathology is often a result of early life experiences, it is generally due to the physical changes in the brain caused by such experiences. Psychopathology is the result of early learning experiences. Early experiences such as learning cause physical changes in the brain.

In addition to reducing anxiety, what broader role does GABA play? It reduces overall arousal and tempers emotional responses. It eases depression. It lessens psychotic behaviours associated with schizophrenia.

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